The municipality of Vlasenica is situated in the eastern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It pertains to the Sarajevo- Zvornik region, and geographically to the Central Drina-River Basin, penetrating the area called Birac. It covers 234 square kilometers and it represents 0.93 percent of the square area of the Republic of Srpska, or 0.46 percent of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Up to 1995, the municipality had been considerably larger - it stretched over 532 square kilometers but, after the Dayton Agreement, 54 settlements were detached and the municipality of Milici was formed out of them. In Vlasenica municipality there remained 38 settlements organized in 12 local communities - Vlasenica, Grabovica, Misari, Cikote, Donji Zalukovik, Simici, Piskavice, Gornji Zalukovik, Bakici, Gradine, Cerska, and Sadici.
Within the territory of the municipality, the arterial highway Belgrade-Zvornik-Sarajevo branches in two directions - towards the south, via Han Pijesak and Sokolac to Sarajevo and westward, and via Kladanj to Tuzla and to Sarajevo as well. The center of the municipality is 220 km away from Belgrade, 210 km from Novi Sad, 100 km from Sarajevo, 240 km from Banja Luka, 45 km from Zvornik, 70 km from Tuzla, and 120 kilometers away from the highway Belgrade-Zagreb.
The seat of the municipality - the town of Vlasenica, at a time, had belonged to the medieval tribal state Birac, which was, in the records preserved in the Dubrovnik Public Records Office, mentioned in 1244, and it is known for a fact that Vlasenica settlement has existed already from the middle of the 15th century, but under the name of Birac, which it had kept until the end of the 18th century. It is assumed that the town got its present name after the herb called vlasulja (animated oat) wide-spread in the environs. However, there is also another version, i.e. that its name was given after its original inhabitants - the Vlachs.
It borders with the municipalities of Han Pijesak, Milici, Sekovici, Zvornik, and Kladanj.